Farmers associate top soil color with soil erosion and fertility. 9 peer-reviewed open access books. 4. Overgrazing aggravates physical soil degradation in the form of crusting and soil compaction (State of the environment South Africa 2009) . The primary cause of soil degradation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expansion and intensification of agriculture in efforts to feed its growing population. Such salinization affected the civilizations of Mesopotamia as long ago as 2500 BC, in which crops increasingly began to fail from progressive salt accumulation. Combating desertification in the EU: a growing threat in need of more action. As it was observed to be quickly degraded in soil by proteolytic enzymes, extracellular urease is mostly seen stabilized and immobilized on soil colloids, both organic and mineral. The world is losing 10 ha of arable land each minute—5 ha to soil erosion, 3 ha from salinity, and 2 ha by Black soil is an indicator of a healthy soil, while white and yellow colors represent an eroded soil (Wezel and Haigis, 2000; Chizana et al., 2007; Davies et al., 2010; Adimassu et al., 2013; Teshome et al., 2016). The type of soil degradation refers to the nature of the degradation process. In Asia, approximately 40% of the soils are classified as degraded. A low degree of soil fertility may arise as a result of natural geological and geochemical processes, but anthropogenic interventions may often cause or accelerate the problem. The Problem Today . It is pertinent to identify the hot spots of important ecosystem services within a landscape and to prioritize these areas. The author emphasized that placing plant growth data side by side with precipitation data is a good method for gauging whether a productive area is becoming desertic or not because, under normal conditions, plant growth increases or decreases in synchrony with precipitation. Fábio Carvalho Nunes, ... Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad, in Climate Change and Soil Interactions, 2020. Desertification has been described as a phenomenon of natural and socioeconomic deterioration through the progressive reduction of biomass, reduction of rainfall, elevation of average temperature, soil infertility, intensification of erosion processes, reduction in the natural resilience of the land, reduction of water quality, decrease in the supply of food, increase in malnutrition and hunger, economic stagnation, and rural exodus (EU, 2018; Geist and Lambin, 2004). • Avoiding soil degradation is crucial to our well-being. Adapted from Snakin, V.V., Krechetov, P.P., Kuzovnikova, T.A., Alyabina, I.O., Gurov, A.F., Stepichev, A.V., 1996. The objective is to reflect the interactions between different biotic and abiotic processes that express spatiotemporal transformations in the soil system, such as enzymatic activities and aggregation (Ribeiro et al., 2009). Soil Degradation • Soil degradation is the inability of soil to support the growth of crops. Replace goodness. For example, advancing food security by intensification and monoculture can decrease biodiversity. Measures considering only scientific knowledge and/or experiences from another environment may be unsuccessful (Reed et al., 2007). Figure 9.14. Municipality of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia, Brazil. The main topics include: 1) Geographical perspectives. Its molecular weight is estimated at approximately 150,000–480,000 Da, and its structure contains nickel as an enzyme cofactor (Kulkarni and Kale, 2014). Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality, and sustainability. Climate change also may worsen soil degradation, underlines the report, related to more frequent and more severe droughts.Other than in tropical ecosystems, soil contains about twice as much organic carbon as above‐ground vegetation.There is growing realisation of the role of soil, in particular peat, as a store … Afforestation of agroecosystems to enhance biodiversity has the co-benefits of generating another income stream for carbon credits (Perring et al., 2012; Schneiders et al., 2012). Increased phosphorus loads, representing the dominant part of the sum of all phosphorus sources from agriculture (on the one hand, the turbidity contributes to phosphorus concentrations in the water column; on the other hand, clay particles compete with plankton for phosphorus and can transport phosphorus to the sediments). Soil degradation can involve: Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (former Office of Environment and Heritage) is leading the implementation of a program for land and soil condition called Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting (MER). Degradation in situ, i.e., without movement of soil particles, can be chemical (soil pollution by chemical wastes or excessive fertilization; fertility decline due to nutrients being removed by harvesting, erosion and leaching; salinization due to irrigation with saline groundwater and/or without proper drainage in semiarid and arid areas, acidification due to pH-lowering additions to the soil from fertilizers or from … According to a recent report to the United Nations, almost one-third of the world’s farmable land has disappeared in the last four decades. When soil carbon is lost, we also lose the storage space […] Soil degradation is the decline in soil condition caused by its improper use or poor management, usually for agricultural, industrial or urban purposes. Changes in the structure of the soil, such as soil compaction through the intensive use of farm machinery, also tends to inhibit plant growth and costs several billions of dollars per year in terms of lost yield; loss of soil fertility due to acidification, salinization, or nutrient deficiency as a result of overcultivation or failure to replace the nutrients that have leached away or have been removed through harvest (such as through the use of nitrogen-fixing legumes or fertilizers); and. Indicators of soil degradation can be visual, physical, chemical, biological, and integrative (Ribeiro et al., 2009). Loss of soil due to erosion, flooding, and/or contamination reduces areas that would be useful for educational, recreational, and religious activities. Decreased light availability for phytoplankton photosynthesis, leading to water quality improvement, or at least compensating for photosynthesis resulting from increased phosphorus loads (Lind and Davalos-Lind, 1999). The second one regards the necessity to acquire energy and nutrients for producers of extracellular enzymes. Soil degradation causes decline in soil quality and productivity. Thus enzyme activity in soils is a predominant factor for the quality of soil organic matter including the availability of carbon and nitrogen (Wallenstein et al., 2011). Magisterial districts with the highest soil degradation index values include Herschel, Qumbu, Mount Fletcher, Engcobo and Middledrift. It is estimated that nearly 2 billion ha of soil resources in the world have been degraded, namely approximately 22% of the total cropland, pasture, forest, and woodland. Genetic resources and materials for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. When reorganization occurs in the subsoil, it is most often called compaction and when it occurs on the surface it is often referred to as soil … 9 Open Access Books. Thus a range of specific ecological strategies and regulatory mechanisms had evolved to ensure its efficiency (Sadhu and Maiti, 2013). Increasing levels of soil degradation and soil sensitivity to desertification are reflected in increasingly complex (and nonlinear) relationships between environmental and socioeconomic variables (Salvati et al., 2015). These manifest themselves, for example, as plant growth limitation, horizon thickness, textural gradient, permeability, porosity, density, penetration resistance, aggregate stability, infiltration, surface runoff, compaction, entrapment, temperature, and plasma-skeletal disjunction of the soil (Fig. Accentuated loss of soil due to erosion can compromise the use of an area for raising livestock by the appearance of ravines and gullies or by the commitment of buildings to house animals. In the Great Plains States of Kansas, Oklahoma and Colorado, and the Palliser triangle in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, wheat was planted on a wide scale, particularly from ca. One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Generating carbon credits is a by-product of one of the most important ecosystem services: carbon sequestration provided through landscape/soil restoration (Lal, 2004; Lal et al., 2004; Curran et al., 2012). The severity of soil and landscape degradation depends on the initial status of the land, the magnitude of drivers that place pressure on land, the responses of the land system, and the impact of feedback from these responses on land resources (Juntti and Wilson, 2005). Compaction, sealing, leaching, salinization, erosion, and the loss of colloidal fractions decrease soil fertility, which leads to the reduction or stagnation of natural production and crop productivity. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Accelerated erosion has major implications for food production and may place people at direct physical risk from landslides. Its abundance and activity are often used as a soil quality bioindicator that can be used to assess past microbial activity, and soil capacity to stabilize the organic matter (Kubartová et al., 2015). Therefore, anticipating and managing future tradeoffs and complementarities between ecosystem services is an important guiding principle of landscape restoration (Reed et al., 2013). of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. Light penetration also is important for the distribution of macrophytes in lakes (Duarte and Kalff, 1987, 1990). 9.14) (Montanarella, 2007). Hence, researchers (Cenini et al., 2015) currently extensively study the research of its feasibility to be used for such purposes. It is estimated that each year about 20,000 km2 of productive land will be destroyed by desertification (estimates by the United Nations Environment Programme—UNEP) and that the Sahara desert has advanced, in some stretches, by up to 100 km. Studies have shown that urease activity in soils increases after soil supplementation with organic fertilizers and decreases after soil tillage (Shaw and DeForest, 2013). In India, farmers’ perceived soil and land degradation as occurring when rills developed on the soil surface, lowlands became waterlogged, and top soil was lost (Kumar Shit et al., 2015). Similarly, removing crop residues for biofuel production can reduce SOC concentration and the SOC pool. Figure 9.16. Thus the most crucial agents for OM decomposition are the soil EEAs (Pathan et al., 2015). These categories were obtained from experimental indicators of productivity and expert estimates (Table 9.5). 8, 331–343. Soil degradation is the loss of land’s production capacity in terms of loss of soil fertility, soil biodiversity, and degradation. Prasad, in climate change evaluation methodologies into the water column, resulting in a clear lake indicators. 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